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The life of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the saga of a great leader turning peoplepower into an armed struggle that liberated a nation and created the world's ninth most populous state. The birth of the sovereign state of Bangladesh in December 1971, after a heroic war of nine months against the Pakistani colonial rule, was the triumph of his faith in the destiny of his people. Sheikh Mujib, endearingly called Bangabandhu or friend of Bangladesh, rose from the people, molded their hopes and aspirations into a dream and staked his life in the long battle for making it real. He was a true democrat, and he employed in his struggle for securing justice and fairplay for the Bengalees only democratic and constitutional weapons until the last moment. It is no accident of history that in an age of military coup d'etat and ‘strong men', Sheikh Mujib attained power through elections and mass movement and that in an age of decline of democracy he firmly established democracy in one of the least developed countries of Asia. The history of Bangladesh has been one of extremes, of turmoil and peace, prosperity and destitution. It has thrived under the glow of cultural spiendour and suffered under the ravages of war. The earliest mention of Bangladesh is found in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata (the story of Great Battle-9th century B.C). Evidence also suggests that there was a strong Mongoloid presence as well. Soon after, in the 5th and 6th centuries B.C. came the Aryans from Central Asia and the Dravidians from Western India. Then came the Guptas, Palas, Senas, who were Buddhist and Hindus.

From the 13th century A.D. the flood of Muslim invaders and the tide of Islam swamped the Buddhist and Hindus untold 8th century. Sometimes there were independent rulers like the Hussain Shahi and Ilyas Shahi dynasties while at other times they ruled on behalf of the imperial seat of Delhi. From 15th century the Europeans, namely; Portuguese, Dutch, French and British traders exerted an economic influence over the region. British political rule over the region began in 1757 A.D. when the last Muslim ruler of Ben. gal was defeated at Palassey. In 1947 the country was partitioned into India and Pakistan. Present Bangladesh becomes the Eastern Wing of the then Pakistan. But the movement for autonomy for East

Pakistan started within a couple of years because of language and cultural difference and economic disparity between the two wings. The seeds of independence were sown through the Language Movement of 1952 to recognize Bangla as a state language. Ultimately the then East Pakistan emerged as a sovereign and independent state of Bangladesh in 1971 after nine month - long war of Liberation (starting on 26 March 1971) in which 3 million people courted martyrdom.


4 National Leaders: Syed Nazrul Islam, Tajuddin Ahmad, Capt. Mansur Ali and A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman

Political Dirty Hands

Killers of Bongobondhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family

Khandakar Mushtaq Ahmed. self-declared President of Bangladesh. 15 Aug 1975 - -6 Nov 1975.

Bongobondhu Sheikh Mujib and all but two members of his family were assassinated by a group of army officers on 15 August 1975, apparently with the concurrence of Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad. Khondaker immediately took control of the government, proclaiming himself president. Several of the army officers, including Syed Faruque Rahman received promotions. Major General Ziaur Rahman was appointed as army chief. Khondaker also ordered the imprisonment of pro-Mujib leaders Syed Nazrul Islam, Tajuddin Ahmad, A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman and Muhammad Mansur Ali. He replaced the national slogan of Joy Bangla with the Bangladesh Zindabad slogan and changed the name Bangladesh Betar to 'Radio Bangladesh'. More controversially, he proclaimed the Indemnity Ordinance, which granted immunity from prosecution to the assassins of Mujib. Mujib's daughters Sheikh Hasina Wazed and Sheikh Rehana were barred from returning to Bangladesh from abroad. Historians and critics assert that Ahmad was one of the key plotters of Bonggo Bondhu 's murder.

Killers of Bongobondhu: From top left: KM Obaidur Rahman, Shah Moazzem Hossain, Nurul Islam Manzoor, Taheruddin Thakur, Lt Col Syed Farukur Rahman, Maj Bazlul Huda, Maj Khairuzzaman, Lt Col Shariful Huq  Dalim, Lt Col Rashed Chowdhury, Lt Col Sultan Shahriar Rshid Khan, Lt Col Khonokar Abdur Rashid, Maj Ashraful Hossain, Maj Mohi Uddin Ahmed, Resalder Moslemuddin Khan, Capt Abdul Mazed, Capt Nazmul Hussain Ansar,  Lt Col SHMB Noor Chowdhury, Capt Kismat Hashem

 

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Bring the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War Criminals to Justice Petition to Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh

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21 February
International Mother Language Day

The UNESCO has proclaimed February 21 as the International Mother Language Day. The proclamation came in the form of a resolution unanimously adopted at the plenary of the UNESCO at its headquarters in Paris in November 1999.

The first International Mother Language Day event was opened on February 21, 2000 in Paris by the Director-General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura who stressed that "by deciding to celebrate mother tongues, UNESCO's Member States wished to recall that languages are not only an essential part of humanity's cultural heritage, but the irreducible expression of human creativity and of its great diversity."

Highlighting the fact that close to 6000 languages are estimated to be spoken in today's world, Mr Matsuura said: "They testify to humanity's astounding ability to create tools of communication, to its perception and reflection. They are the mirror of the souls of the societies in which they are born and they reflect the history of their contacts. In this sense, it could be said that all languages are cross-bred."
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Films of the month

Tazuddin Ahmed

The man who liberated Bangladesh in the Independence War of 1971

Watch Stop genocide by Jahir Raihan
The Great War - a BBC production
Shadhinota shongramer itihash
"Today Bangladesh is a sovereign and independent country. On Thursday 16th of march 1971 night West Pakistani armed forces suddenly attacked the police barracks at Razarbagh and the EPR headquarters at Pilkhana in Dhaka. Many innocent and unarmed have been killed in Dhaka city and other places of Bangladesh. Violent clashes between EPR and Police on the one hand and the armed forces of Pindi on the other, are going on. The Bengalis are fighting the enemy with great courage for an independent Bangladesh. May God aid us in our fight for freedom. Joy Bangla."
Instrument of Surrender
Pakistani Army Comander in the Eastern Command, Lt. General A. A. K. Niazi, signing the Instrument of Surrender in front of General of Officer Commanding in Chief of India and Bangladesh Forces in the Eastern Theatre, Lt. General Jagjit Singh Aurora. 16th December, 1971
On 18 April 1930, young revolutionaries led by Surya Sen in attacked and burned down the British Armory in Chittagong. They fought a heroic battle on the hills of Jalalabad where twelve revolutionaries were killed.
Partition 1947
This partition 1947 created both a harvest of bitterness and the basis for further conflict. In 1970-71, Pakistan itself was further divided as East Pakistan became the new state of Bangladesh, a process attended by an enormous human tragedy of war and famine.

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Help the victims of SIDR

Dear Friends of Tritio Matra: Our country is in distress and millions have been affected, what can we do? In this crisis moment of Bangladeshi we all are trying our level best to help the victims of sidr. We can donate money, but in which organization? Tritio Matra made a research on sincerity of different organizations those are involve with disaster management. and we do recomend following organizations according to their area of works:

Chief Adviser's Relief Fund
Current A/C No. 33004093 Sonali Bank, Prime Minister's Office Branch,Tejgaon,Dhaka SWIFT Code : BSONBDDH.
International Federation Red Cross and Red Crescent Save the Children

Historical Events

The Proclamation of Indepen-dence was read at the village Baidyanathtola, Meherpur known as Mujibnagar, on 17 April 1971. On this day the first provisional government of Bangladesh took oath here. The Pak army killed several hundred people at village Amjhupi on 18 April 1971.

Mujibnagar: Located at a distance of about 7 km. from the town of Meherpur.

Monument of the War of Liberation

National Memorial Monument : Located at Savar, 35, km. from Dhaka city. The memorial designed by architect Moinul Hossein, is dedicated to the sacred memory of the millions of unknown martyrs of the 1971 war of liberation

Mass grave: Meherpur Government College, Jagannathpur, Kazipur and Tengramari; Mass killing site: Jatarpur, memorial monument at Mujibnagar.

IMPRESSUM
Editor-in-Chief: Monaz Haque. Media correspondent: Al-Amin. Editorial Board: Mir Amdadul haque, Md. Azizuddin Bhuyian, Areef Mahboob, Maliha Haque, Farzana Mahboob, Jahangir Ahmed, Farzana Ruma,
Adviser: Hasan Mahmud,


TriTio Matra is a documentation project based on Bangladesh war of Independence, initiated by a group of Bangladeshi living in Bangladesh and abroad